Al-Ula City is known for its fertile land, abundance of water resources and numerous farms. It is surrounded by mountains composed of sandy rocks to the East and West. Al-Ula mountains are considered natural extension of Asawarat chain of mountains extending from South to North of Saudi Arabia with length of more than 2,500 kilometers. Al-Ula and Madain Saleh lies over large underground water reservoir , which is called geologically as "Al-Ula Basin" where the layers of sedimentary rocks contains large amount of fresh groundwater formed millions of geological years ago. According to studies conducted by historians and archaeologists, it has an ancient history date back to the 6th century B.C. Al-Ula is known in ancient manuscripts and works of Dedan Kingdom.
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Madain Saleh (Al-Hijr) dates back to the Nabataean civilization considered as one of the very important archaeological site in Saudi Arabia called "The Capital of the Monuments" as it contains huge amount of diverse of multifaceted monuments. Because of the proper climate and natural conditions in adaptation to the availability of freshwater in the area, people settled there. The Kingdom of Nabataean with its capital Petra in Jordan expanded to dominate Madain Saleh, which reach during that period, the peak of civility and civilization. They innovated in carving stones, drilling wells on the rocks, digging rainwater tanks and carving places of worship on the rocks. Study shows that Madain Saleh governed by Nabataean, then by Romanians who dominated the North Arabian Peninsula in 106 A.D.
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